May 3, 2017
From TPE to Soft PLA, flexible 3D printing filaments are widely useful materials to have at the ready. By design, these filaments are basically printable rubber, allowing you to create complex elastic designs that would otherwise be impossible. Flexible filaments come in a variety of colors, chemical make-ups, and hardness, giving you the flexibility to apply their various properties.
In general, most rubbers are thermoset; you heat them up, shape them, let them cool, and that shape is final. This isn’t helpful when your 3D printer needs to change the shape of filament from a cylinder to your model. The opposite of thermoset is thermoplastic; you can melt and reshape your material almost indefinitely. By combining plastic polymers with rubber polymers, you get a Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE). With this same principle, you can combine materials to create Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU), Polyester Copolyamide Thermoplastic Elastomer (PCTPE), or Soft PLA (combining PLA and saturating it in a specific chemical to soften it).
These materials are used in many industries from automotive instrument panels, caster wheels, power tools, sporting goods, medical devices, drive belts, footwear, inflatable rafts, and a variety of extruded forms like door trim or as filament. More than 40% of all TPE produced is destined for use somewhere in a vehicle. TPE’s common use in manufacturing makes it an easy transition from large scale manufacturing to 3D printing and rapid prototyping.
If you have printed with PLA filament, you will find it to be hard and brittle; drop it in the wrong way and it shatters. With a flexible material like MatterHackers PRO Series Flex, you can drop it a thousand times over and not break it. PRO Flex can be stretched to 6 times its original length before breaking, and with our normal filament strength testing rig, we ran out of room before it snapped.
Make sure to turn off retraction for the entirety of you print. Constant retracting and extruding can cause your print to underextrude from having to “refill” the hotend with more filament after each retraction. In some cases, you could even grind a flat spot in the filament preventing you from extruding filament at all. Despite turning off retraction, unless you’re printing an incredibly complex part, you shouldn’t even notice the difference.
Follow the same procedures used for nylon to dry your flexible filaments: 200°F for six hours in a conventional oven, then turn it off and let the oven cool back to room temperature. You can also use a vacuum oven to dry your filament in a half hour to an hour. Most flexible filaments are hygroscopic to some degree, and will pop and sizzle if you try extruding it wet. These are pockets of water that steam up instantly, leaving voids in your print. These cubes were printed without drying the filament before printing, whereas the bike grip was put in an oven and removed immediately before printing.
With PLA or ABS, you can print FAST. They’re a hard material, so it’s really easy to grip and push the filament through the nozzle. Printing flexibles is like trying to guide one end of a rope by pushing the other. By slowing it down, it’s much less likely to bind up or even wrap around your extruder gear (I’ve had this happen to me, and it was quite the sight). Slower doesn’t mean 10mm/s either, 30mm/s as a maximum speed is a great starting point. Some printers can print faster, others need to go a little slower, but 30mm/s for infill works very well.
Bowden vs Direct Drive. Any time printing flexible filaments is mentioned, one of the first comments is how you can’t print flexibles with a bowden-style printer, or that it doesn’t print well. In the past, that comment would be right, but 3D printing and 3D printer manufacturers have made a lot of advances, but the biggest improvement is constraining the filament path. What this means is that from extruder gear to the opening of the nozzle, there is no where for the filament to want to come out of or bind in. It all comes down to, is there room for the filament to squeeze out of after it leaves the extruder gear. If yes, either design a piece to constrain it, or modify your extruder to fill in the gaps.
Taylor wrote a full breakdown and a much more in depth discussion with pictures and more technical knowledge of why exactly bowden vs direct drive isn’t the question you should be asking, so if that interests you, you can read about it here.
The first layer is the most important part of any print. There are a few things you need to do to get the first layer to stick well.
Here is a video from MatterHackers' 3D printing 101 series that will help guide you in the right direction for getting a stellar first layer.
Blue Tape, or Painter’s Tape, is one of the easiest and fastest ways to get a great print from your flexibles. Here is a quick checklist of things you want to make sure you are doing.
Blue Tape is not perfect but it is very easy to use and generally gives great results. However, sometimes your parts can pull the tape up off the glass during printing, and you will see some warping when that happens.
When you have a temperature controlled bed, printing directly on glass can be a great option. The recommended bed temperature for flexible filaments vary greatly, from room temperature to 110°C, so follow the recommended bed settings as described in our Filament Comparison Guide.
If you followed the steps to getting your first layer right and your print isn’t sticking, try this:
When you can get it working well, glass is the absolute best way to print flexible filaments. It makes a great shiny bottom layer and the heated bed ensures that parts stay nice and flat.
When working with a new roll of filament for the first time, we generally like to start printing at about 235°C and then adjusting the temperature up or down by 5 degree increments until we get a quality print.
You will see more strings between the separate parts of your print, like cobwebs. If this happens you should try to incrementally lower the temperature by 5 degrees until the extruder is not leaking so much material. Printing flexible filament works much better with retraction turned off, so you may not be able to prevent all strings from occurring, but with the proper temperature, you should have very few issues.
You will either see that the filament is not sticking to the previous layer and you are getting poor layer adhesion or you will get a part that is not strong and can be pulled apart easily. In either case, you should increase the temperature by 5 degrees and try again until you get good line segments on every layer and have a strong part when done printing.
Note: You may need to experiment with the temperature that will print the best on your printer. Ambient temperature, humidity and the calibration and uniqueness of your printer all play a part in how your prints will turn out.
If you have any comments or contributions, please drop us an email or give us a call. We are always looking for tips, and best practices - and would love to hear from you. Feel free to reach out with any specific questions on the MatterHackers Forum.
Check out our Filament Comparison Guide to get the scoop on all the latest and greatest filaments - Happy Printing!
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